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Research background

The material on this site is based on the research findings, in particular, of Professors Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. In 1998, Professors Black and Wiliam published Inside the Black Box, a summary of the findings of a literature review which had explored research into the role played by formative assessment in improving student achievement.

The full article, on which the above summary is based, can be found in the following publication:

  • Black, P & Wiliam, D 1998, ‘Assessment and Classroom Learning’, Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, March, vol 5, no 1, pp 7-74.

The ten research-based principles of Assessment for Learning provide further information. They can be viewed under ‘Publications’ on the website of the Assessment Reform Group:

View a more extensive bibliography of research into formative assessment/Assessment for Learning.